Fair Pay Practices: A Closer Look at Wage and Hour Regulations

All employers have a crucial responsibility to ensure fair pay practices. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) sets the core federal wage and hour standards that provide major worker protections. With the FLSA covering over 135 million employees in both the public and private sectors, staying current on these rules is crucial for compliance. This article will focus on the essential FLSA wage and hour provisions outlined.

Overview of Current Wage and Hour Regulations

The federal government sets minimum wage, overtime, recordkeeping, and child labor standards under the FLSA that all employers must follow. Businesses also have to comply with any applicable state or local wage and hour laws.

A deep understanding of wage and hour regulations, making the expertise of an attorney for wage and hour in Los Angeles invaluable. They ensure businesses stick to laws governing minimum wage, overtime, pay, time tracking, child workers, and all aspects of fair compensation. Recent updates to FLSA regulations comprise:

  • A September 2022 proposal to update overtime exemptions for executive, administrative, and professional workers. This aims to extend protections to over 300,000 more people.
  • In October 2022, a proposal was made to revise the test for classifying independent contractors under the FLSA, aiming to clarify who qualifies as a contractor versus an employee.

Minimum Wage Standards Under the FLSA

The federal minimum wage has remained unchanged at $7.25 per hour since July 24, 2009. However, 30 states and D.C. have established higher state minimum wage rates, ranging from $7.50 per hour in New Mexico up to $15 per hour in California. Employers are required to pay the higher rate where state and federal standards differ.

An estimated 1.6 million hourly workers are paid at or below the federal minimum wage of $7.25. These workers tend to be young or part-time employees in industries like retail, hospitality, and food services. Recent data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics shows that about 50% of minimum wage workers are under the age of 25 and 24% are teenagers.

The ongoing debate revolves around whether to raise the federal minimum wage. Supporters say a higher minimum would improve living standards for lower-income workers and cut poverty. However, critics argue that it might result in job losses, particularly for small businesses unable to afford the increased labor costs.

The upcoming changes proposed in the latest NPRM on overtime exemptions. This could extend wage protections to many currently exempt workers, especially in the service sector.

Overtime Regulations and Compliance

A major area of FLSA compliance involves overtime regulations. The FLSA requires that employees be paid overtime at a rate of one and one-half times their regular hourly rate for all hours worked over 40 in a workweek. Common compliance issues include:

  • Misclassifying employees as exempt to avoid paying overtime
  • Calculating the regular rate of pay
  • Forgetting to include commissions, bonuses, or other nondiscretionary pay when determining overtime rates

In 2020, the Department of Labor collected over $322 million in back wages due to overtime violations. To ensure compliance, it’s vital to understand the complexities of overtime requirements. Investing in payroll systems and processes that track hours and calculate overtime can reduce compliance risks.

Recordkeeping and Employer Responsibilities

The FLSA mandates that employers keep accurate employee records including full names, addresses, dates of birth, pay rates, weekly hours worked, and other information. Records must be preserved for at least 3 years. Effective recordkeeping is crucial for monitoring:

  • Compliance with minimum wage and overtime regulations
  • Adherence to child labor laws
  • Consistent classification of employees and independent contractors

According to a survey conducted by the Society for Human Resource Management, 83% of HR professionals reported facing challenges in maintaining FLSA compliance. Effective time-tracking and recordkeeping systems can support compliance efforts.

Child Labor Laws and Protections

The FLSA includes important provisions designed to protect educational opportunities for minors and prevent interference with schooling:

  • Children under 14 cannot be employed, except in limited occupations such as babysitting or newspaper delivery.
  • 14- and 15-year-olds can work limited hours in certain jobs outside school hours.
  • There are more restrictions on work hours for 16- and 17-year-olds based on school status and industry.

While work experience can benefit youth development, the priority under FLSA child labor rules is preserving educational and workplace protections.

The Evolving Landscape: Independent Contractors

Correctly classifying workers as employees or independent contractors has major implications under the FLSA. Independent contractors are exempt from minimum wage, overtime, and certain other FLSA protections. Some key factors in the classification determination include:

Control over work: Employees are subject to employer control, while contractors have autonomy over their work methods.

Nature of work: Work duties falling within the company’s core business purposes often or show an employment relationship.

Discretion over schedule: Employees generally work set schedules, while contractors control their hours.

Investment: Contractors invest in their equipment, materials, and tools.

Compensation method: Employees earn set wages, while contractors submit invoices and are paid per project or deliverable.

Benefits eligibility: Employees receive company-sponsored benefits while contractors do not.

Misclassifying employees as independent contractors denies workers overtime and minimum wage protections. It also poses compliance risks for employers around taxes, benefits, and other obligations. Recent regulatory changes aim to clarify the distinction between employee and contractor statuses to enhance protections for all workers.


Keeping up to date with evolving wage and hour rules enables employers to establish workplaces that prioritize fair pay. As regulations adapt to the modern workforce, sticking to FLSA’s rules for minimum wage, overtime, recordkeeping, and child labor stays crucial. You need to know both federal FLSA standards and your state labor laws. By planning and focusing their efforts, businesses can establish systems to uphold compliance and ensure fair pay for all employees.


What Are The Current Federal Minimum Wage Standards And How Do They Interact With State Laws?

The federal minimum wage is currently $7.25 per hour. However, states can set a higher minimum wage rate. Employers must pay workers the higher state minimum where federal and state minimums differ.

How Are Overtime Payments Calculated And What Are Common Employer Errors In This Area?

Overtime pay must be at least 1.5 times the regular rate of pay for hours worked over 40 in a week. Errors include miscalculating the regular rate by excluding commissions or bonuses or misclassifying employees as exempt from overtime.

What Are The Implications Of Misclassifying Employees As Independent Contractors Under The Flsa?

Misclassification denies workers overtime and minimum wage protections. Recent regulatory changes aim to clarify the distinction between employees and contractors to improve worker protections.